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Дата добавления: 01 Апреля 2012 в 01:06Автор: Пользователь скрыл имяТип работы: реферат
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Context
Introduction……………………………………………………………………….3
1. History of the acquisition of the Dutch collection………………………………5
2. Dutch painting…………………………………………………………………..7

Claesz pieter реферат скачать


2.1. Frans Hals…………………………………………………………………….14
2.2. Jan Steen………………………………………………………………………18
2.3. Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn………………………………………………20
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………25
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………26
Introduction
State Hermitage Museum is a museum of art in Saint
Petersburg, Russia. The Hermitage is the largest public museum in Russia
and home to one of the greatest art collections in the world. Russian
empress Catherine the Great founded the Hermitage in 1764 as a museum
for the royal court. The holdings originally consisted of Western European

works of art that she purchased from private collections. These were
housed in a private gallery called the Small Hermitage that was connected
to the Winter Palace, the vast, ornate winter home of the Russian tsars.
The tsars who succeeded Catherine substantially increased the collections,
which expanded into the Old Hermitage, another private gallery adjoining

the Winter Palace. The buildings comprising the Hermitage were rebuilt
after a fire in the Winter Palace in 1837. The museum opened to the
public in 1852 and became public property known as the State Hermitage
Museum in 1917, following the Russian Revolution. The collections are now housed in five magnificent interconnected

buildings, including the Winter Palace. The lavish exteriors and interiors
of these buildings are of architectural and historical importance in
themselves. They provide a rich setting for collections that cover virtually
every aspect of the fine arts, from classical antiquity to 20th-century
painting. The collection also includes examples of Russian art, artifacts
from non-Western cultures, Oriental art, coins, and jewelry.
The Hermitage`s collection of Western European art is particularly
strong in Italian, Spanish, Flemish, and Dutch paintings and includes
major works by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giorgione, Caravaggio, Diego
Velazquez, El Greco, Rembrandt, and Pieter Paul Rubens. The Schukin
and Morozov Collections of impressionist, postimpressionist, and modern
paintings contain many of the finest works by Henri Matisse, as well
as major paintings by Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin,
Henri Rousseau, and Pablo Picasso.
The collection of Western European art is regarded
as one of the finest in the world, and forms the nucleus of the Hermitage
display. It occupies 120 rooms in the four museum buildings, and reflects
all the stages in the development of art from the Middle Ages to the
present day. The collection includes numerous works by outstanding masters
from Italy, Spain, Holland, Flanders, France, England, Germany, and
other Western European countries. Great numbers of various items of
applied art are presented side by side with paintings and sculptures.
Due to their great fragility, prints and drawings are displayed only
in temporary exhibitions according to international practice.
History of the acquisition of the Dutch collection.
1764: Empress Catherine II purchases Johann Ernest Gotzkowski’s collection,
the first collection of the Museum. In 1764 Empress Catherine II acquired
the collection formed by Johann Gotzkowski for King Frederick II of
Prussia. A rich Berlin merchant and founder of silk and porcelain factories
in Berlin, Johann Gotzkowski was one of Frederick’s agents, in charge
of the purchase of works of art for the royal collection. Frederick
II (the Great), owner of a wonderful collection of contemporary French
paintings, ordered Gotzkowski to purchase paintings by old masters.
The merchant was a zealous agent and it took him only a few years to
put together a large collection, but by this time Frederick had lost
large sums of money in the Seven Years War and he refused to make the
purchase. The enterprising merchant was forced to look around for alternative

Claesz pieter реферат скачать


2.1. Frans Hals…………………………………………………………………….14
2.2. Jan Steen………………………………………………………………………18
2.3. Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn………………………………………………20
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………25
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………26
Introduction
State Hermitage Museum is a museum of art in Saint
Petersburg, Russia. The Hermitage is the largest public museum in Russia
and home to one of the greatest art collections in the world. Russian
empress Catherine the Great founded the Hermitage in 1764 as a museum
for the royal court. The holdings originally consisted of Western European

works of art that she purchased from private collections. These were
housed in a private gallery called the Small Hermitage that was connected
to the Winter Palace, the vast, ornate winter home of the Russian tsars.
The tsars who succeeded Catherine substantially increased the collections,
which expanded into the Old Hermitage, another private gallery adjoining

the Winter Palace. The buildings comprising the Hermitage were rebuilt
after a fire in the Winter Palace in 1837. The museum opened to the
public in 1852 and became public property known as the State Hermitage
Museum in 1917, following the Russian Revolution. The collections are now housed in five magnificent interconnected

buildings, including the Winter Palace. The lavish exteriors and interiors
of these buildings are of architectural and historical importance in
themselves. They provide a rich setting for collections that cover virtually
every aspect of the fine arts, from classical antiquity to 20th-century
painting. The collection also includes examples of Russian art, artifacts
from non-Western cultures, Oriental art, coins, and jewelry.
The Hermitage`s collection of Western European art is particularly
strong in Italian, Spanish, Flemish, and Dutch paintings and includes
major works by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giorgione, Caravaggio, Diego
Velazquez, El Greco, Rembrandt, and Pieter Paul Rubens. The Schukin
and Morozov Collections of impressionist, postimpressionist, and modern
paintings contain many of the finest works by Henri Matisse, as well
as major paintings by Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin,
Henri Rousseau, and Pablo Picasso.
The collection of Western European art is regarded
as one of the finest in the world, and forms the nucleus of the Hermitage
display. It occupies 120 rooms in the four museum buildings, and reflects
all the stages in the development of art from the Middle Ages to the
present day. The collection includes numerous works by outstanding masters
from Italy, Spain, Holland, Flanders, France, England, Germany, and
other Western European countries. Great numbers of various items of
applied art are presented side by side with paintings and sculptures.
Due to their great fragility, prints and drawings are displayed only
in temporary exhibitions according to international practice.
History of the acquisition of the Dutch collection.
1764: Empress Catherine II purchases Johann Ernest Gotzkowski’s collection,
the first collection of the Museum. In 1764 Empress Catherine II acquired
the collection formed by Johann Gotzkowski for King Frederick II of
Prussia. A rich Berlin merchant and founder of silk and porcelain factories
in Berlin, Johann Gotzkowski was one of Frederick’s agents, in charge
of the purchase of works of art for the royal collection. Frederick
II (the Great), owner of a wonderful collection of contemporary French
paintings, ordered Gotzkowski to purchase paintings by old masters.
The merchant was a zealous agent and it took him only a few years to
put together a large collection, but by this time Frederick had lost
large sums of money in the Seven Years War and he refused to make the
purchase. The enterprising merchant was forced to look around for alternative